What are other causes of infertility in women?

There are both hormonal and non-hormonal factors that can contribute to infertility in women. Hormonal factors include menopause, premature ovarian failure, problems with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, diminished ovarian reserve, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and other hormonal imbalances. Non-hormonal reasons for infertility can include scarring of the vagina, cervix, uterus, or fallopian tubes that either prevent sperm from reaching the egg or the egg from implanting in the uterus, as well as uterine abnormalities that a woman was born with preventing proper implantation.