What are other causes of infertility in women?

Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected sex. There are both hormonal and nonhormonal factors that can cause infertility in women. Hormonal factors include menopause, premature ovarian failure, problems with their hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, diminished ovarian reserve, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Nonhormonal causes include scarring of the vagina, cervix, uterus, or fallopian tubes that either prevent sperm from reaching the egg or the egg from implanting in the uterus or uterine abnormalities that a woman was born with preventing proper implantation.

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